Address for Correspondence: Ihor Hayda, Danylo Halytsky Lviv National Medical University, Lviv, Ukraine, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
A 60-year-old female outpatient with complaints of episodes of tachycardia was referred to the ultrasound department by her cardiologist. She was sent for carotid artery ultrasound as a significant carotid plaque was noted during a previous thyroid ultrasound (carotid artery bifurcation screening must be performed as part of thyroid ultrasound at our clinic).
It was started as a routine carotid artery ultrasound examination. However, possible surgical correction was considered in this case due to findings. In order to present this case to a vascular surgeon correctly, we have to use the multiparametric approach. Some of the images are demonstrated below (Fig. 1-4).
Figure 1. Proximal segment of the left Internal carotid artery (left ICA)
Figure 2. Proximal segment of the left internal carotid artery (left ICA) – color Doppler ultrasound study
Figure 3. Left common carotid artery (left CCA) – cross-sectional area for the calculation of carotid artery stenosis
Figure 4. Left common carotid artery (left CCA) – color Doppler ultrasound study
1. Please define what type of the plaque you can see on Figure 1 according to the Geroulakos classification (1).
2. What is the degree of stenosis of the left internal carotid artery (ICA) based on Figures 2, 3 and 4?
-0< 50 %
-50 – 69%
3. What would you call the color phenomenon when you see green color in the middle of the vessel, where the sample volume is located (Fig. 2)?
4. What would you call the color phenomenon when you see blue color at the posterior wall of the ICA, below the sample volume (Fig.2)?
5. What statement is more accurate if you compare spectral Doppler appearances of the left ICA (Fig. 2) and the left common carotid artery (Fig. 4).
-a poor acoustic window is demonstrated (Fig. 2)
-turbulent flow is demonstrated (Fig. 2)
-acoustic clarity is demonstrated (Fig. 4)
-spectral broadening is demonstrated (Fig. 2)
Ihor Hayda, Mykhaylo Sorokivskyy, Ihor Volodymyr Hayda
Danylo Halytsky Lviv National Medical University, Lviv, Ukraine
Peer-review: internal and external
Conflict of interest: None to declare
Authorship: I.H., M.S., and I.V.H. have equally contributed to preparation of quiz
Acknowledgement and funding: None to declare