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Atrial flutter (AFL) is one of the most common supraventricular arrhythmias with macro-reentrant mechanism of atrial activation around an anatomical barrier with regular atrial rate ≥ 240 beats/min (1, 2). Despite of recent advances in invasive electrophysiology, electrocardiography (ECG) remains one of the most effective methods used for rhythm disorders diagnostics.
Left and right atria have gained interest from scientific community. Two or three- dimensional echocardiographic methods have been implemented for better understanding of atrial functions in both healthy persons and patients with various diseases. Atrial volume could be calculated from 2D or 3D images. Volumetric data and derived parameters could be used for determining atrial phasic functions.
A 27-year-old patient with episodes of syncope and short episodes of documented tachycardia. What is the possible cause of syncope?